The effectiveness in the removal of the active carbon for adsorption (the ability of a solid surface or liquid to hold or concentrate atoms, molecules or ions of other substances in contact with it) is mainly due to two characteristics: the porosity, which determines a high specific surface area, and the chemical reactivity, although limited to certain areas.
The porosity derives from the presence of a complex network of channels that it is usual to distinguish arbitrarily, according to size, including micropores and macropores.
The CA. can be obtained starting from the organic substance contained in any compound of plant or animal nature such as almond shells, bones, peat and cellulose.
The process to get it out in two phases: the carbonization and activation.
The first is achieved by maintaining long the coal to 500-600 ° C, this allows the dehydration of the material and the decomposition of organic compounds. The second phase consists in activating the amorphous carbon at a temperature of 800 ° C by oxidising agents such as steam, oxygen or CO2. In this way it increases the specific surface of the charcoal